Tag Archives: Egypt

Egypt and Tunisia: personality and ‘Western’ hypocrisy

Two things have struck me in particular about the recent dramatic events in Tunisia and Egypt that seem to have been insufficiently addressed in much of the media coverage:

  • The way in which the protest movements have been so personally focused on opposition to two individuals Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and Hosni Mubarak – they could never have stayed in power for so long unless substantial segments of the populations from both countries had not benefited from and supported them.  So the issues I do not fully understand are: why have the protest movements not focused more attention on the old regimes’ supporters in general; why was the protest so personalised; is this a particular feature of politics in the region, or a more widespread feature of mass uprisings (and here I think of the overthrow of the Ceaușescu regime in Romania); what will happen to those who worked for and implemented the wishes of Ben-Ali and Mubarak (those left behind who could not flee the country); and given the power vacuums that have been created, how will new political and governance structures be crafted that really serve the interests  of the people (in many revolutions, those who bring down the old regime are not those who then eventually become the new leaders)?
  • The hypocrisy of Western leaders – some of the rhetoric coming from the US and French governments is to my mind utterly appalling.  One of the reasons why both Ben Ali and Mubarak  stayed in power for so long is that they were supported by external governments in the capitalist world, and particularly the US and France.  If the Obama and Sarkozy regimes had really wanted what has happened now on the streets of Cairo and Tunis to have occurred earlier, they could easily have encouraged much more rapid political change in Egypt and Tunisia – and yet they did not!  They supported the old regimes in both countries, and are being entirely opportunistic in their new approaches.  Of course this is not unexpected from leaders such as Obama and Sarkozy, self-serving and arrogant as they are, and perhaps this is simply the reality of global politics.  I would, though, be much more respectful of such leaders if they actually apologised to the people of countries, whose unpleasant regimes they have propped up, once those regimes fall.  There is scarcely a country in which the US has intervened that has not subsequently experienced dramatic political upheaval. The history of Vietnam and Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan should have taught USAns something.  I hope that the new leaders of Egypt and Tunisia are strong enough to let the governments of Western countries know exactly what they feel about the past, and that they will tell the US in particular that it should not meddle in the political affairs of other sovereign states.  Once Obama has substantially improved the USA and once Sarkozy has done likewise in France, then, and only then, might they have some words of advice that people in other countries could listen to.  As most sane people understand this will never happen, because neither leaders have the vision or ability fundamentally to change their own societies and to make their states fairer and better places in which to live.

We live in interesting times.  Six months ago, I for one never thought that the start of 2011 would bring such political change – and I remain amazed at how peaceful and successful the protests in Tunisia and Egypt have been.  What will the next six months bring?  We all have much to learn from the people on the streets of North Africa.

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Social networks, digital technologies and political change in North Africa

Much has been written about the potential of new ICTs, and particularly mobile technologies and social networking software, to transform political and social systems.  A fundamental question that underlies all work in ICT4D is whether new ICTs can indeed be used by the poor to overthrow oppressive regimes, or whether, like other technologies before them, ICTs are used primarily by the rich and powerful to maintain their positions of power.  Until very recently, it seemed that despite the potential of ICTs to undermine dominant political structures, most attempts to do so have been ruthlessly crushed.  The ruling regime in Iran was thus able to suppress the ‘Twitter Revolution’ of 2009-10, and the Burmese government likewise maintained its grip on power despite extensive use of mobile ‘phones and the Internet during protests in 2007.

Recent events in North Africa, with the overthrow of President Ben Ali in Tunisia and the continuing protests against President Mubarak in Egypt, have widely been attributed in considerable part to the agency of mobile ‘phones and the use of social networking environments over the Internet.  Whilst it is too early fully to judge their importance in fueling such political protests, the following reports provide evidence in support of such claims:

Tunisia

Egypt

Wider ramifications

Much research needs to be undertaken on the real role of ICTs in these ongoing political processes.  What seems apparent, though, is that many participants do indeed believe that these technologies are helping them achieve their objectives.

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Filed under 'phones, Accessibility, Africa, Development, Ethics, Social Networking