This is the last, and most important, in my series of images from 1976 and 1977 when I was in what was then South Bihar (now Jharkhand) in India. I had the enormous privilege of assisting Sudhir Wanmali who was then undertaking research on the hats, or periodic markets in Singbhum District. He taught me so much, not formally but just by being with him, watching and listening to how he interviewed, and above all by seeing the ways in which he interacted with people. His wisdom, enthusiasm, generosity and passion for research were, and indeed still are, inspirational.
The hats are markets that take place regularly in different locations, and provide an opportunity not only for rural people to sell to the itinerant traders and others in the market, but also to buy things that they need and do not produce themselves. As the following images show, it was possible to buy and sell almost anything you might need there, from the cloth, pots and brightly coloured glass bangles brought in by traders, to sweet potatoes, onions, tomatoes and many other vegetables, as well as the cattle and goats being sold by the farmers. Some traders also collected products such as lac, collected in the forests by the people who lived there, and others would also buy up small amounts of paddy that farmers brought for sale. At the end of the day, I remember rice beer being sold in simple cups made of leaves. The pictures below are mainly from places such as Bangaon, Hat Gamharia, Nakti, Tebo and Jagannathpur.
Sudhir’s work was published in an excellent monograph – Wanmali, S. (1981) Periodic Markets and Rural Development in India, Delhi: BR – but is also written up in other papers, including:
- Wanmali, S. (1980) The regulated and periodic markets and rural development in India, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, new series 5(4), 466-86.
- Johnson, J. and Wanmali, S. (1981) A Q-analysis of periodic market systems, Geographical Analysis, 13(2), 262-275
- Wanmali, S. (1985) Networks of distribution of goods and services in rural India: some spatial considerations, in ICRISAT, Agricultural Markets in the Semi-Arid Tropics. Proceedings of the International Workshop, 24-28 October 1983, ICRISAT, 133-138
At the time, I was also working on medieval England and drew parallels between marketing systems that had been created there in the 14th century, and those that I had experienced in Singbhum. This was published as:
- T. Unwin (1981) Rural marketing in medieval Nottinghamshire, Journal of Historical Geography, 7, 231–51.
I very much hope that these pictures, now some 40 years old, not only contribute to the archive of Jharkhand’s past, but also reflect the beauty of this special part of the world. I often wonder how the lives of the many people I met there turned out…